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Objectives of Prajnan
PRAJNAN is a quarterly double-blind refereed journal that presents research papers, brief articles and commentary on banking and finance and operations. The objectives of the Journal are (a) to encourage new thinking on concepts and theoretical frameworks in the various disciplines of Social Sciences, Administrative and Management Sciences, and (b) to disseminate such new ideas and research papers (with strong emphasis on realism of analysis, provision and use of empirical evidence) which have broad relevance to the working and development of banking and other financial institutions, to help the management of such institutions in formulating various policies that are related both to the short-term and long-term needs of the organizations as well as of the economy.

Submission of full Research Papers which would fulfil the above objectives are welcome. The Journal would also publish Brief Articles, Notes or Comments, etc., which conforms the standards. It is a condition of publication, that the Research Papers, Brief Articles, Notes or Comments, etc., are original works and they have not already been published or they are not submitted for publication elsewhere and will not be reprinted without leave of the Editor (i.e. the copyright of the published materials to be with the Journal).

Each paper is reviewed by the Editor and if it is judged suitable, then it enters the double-blind review process. Manuscripts may be rejected, edited or returned for specified revision on the basis of the recommendations of the referees and decision of the editorial board. Utmost care is taken to ensure faster response to our authors.

Opinions expressed by the authors in the Papers, Notes or Comments are purely individual and no responsibility for such views is assumed by the Editor or the Publishers.

Authors whose papers are published in the Journal will be supplied with 25 reprints of their paper and a complimentary copy of the issue.

The Journal also reviews important books published recently in the disciplines of Social Sciences, Administrative and Management Sciences. Publishers desirous of such reviews should send preferably two copies of the books to the Journal.

PRAJNAN Publication Ethics
Established in 1972, PRAJNAN is one of the oldest management journals attracting quality research papers from academic authors and professionals. The journal has a track record of consistent quality publication throughout its journey. In the area of Banking and Finance, the journal has earned its credibility.

The journal and its editors are fully committed to ethical publication practice. The journal fully endorse and supports the development of and practical application of consistent ethical standards.

Authors are expected to submit original, previously unpublished content to PRAJNAN. During acknowledgment of receipt of articles and prescribing manuscript id, authors agree to the terms that all research submitted to the journal is based on original research based output. The editor and the editorial committee members thoroughly go through each paper and check the authenticity including plagiarism; our reviewers also provide useful information on authenticity of the content and we have zero tolerance on plagiarism, falsification or fabrication of data. We have instantly rejected such papers.

Authors’ Responsibility
Authors are expected to respond to our queries during the peer review process. In case any error or omission is discovered, it is the responsibility of the author to promptly notify the journal editor and to cooperate with the editor for retraction or correction of the paper.

Publication Misconduct
All reasonable steps should be taken to avoid publication misconduct including fabrication, falsification and plagiarism. The journal ensures proper citation of works, sources of data, charts, graphs, and authenticity of information through review process.

Complaints Process
The author can directly write to email and submit a complaint about the journal's review and selection process.

Authorship Issue
If the article has multiple authors, it is important that all authors who have significantly contributed to the work are listed properly. The authors should duly acknowledge those who have provided research support in the acknowledgement section.

Conflict of Interest
PRAJNAN provides utmost priority and care to avoid potential conflicts and ensure unbiased review. We have an excellent panel of reviewers who have rich experience on the subject matter. We encourage submissions from the reputed institutes/universities/research organizations in India and abroad outside NIBM. We don't publish papers from employees, editors or members of the editorial board of NIBM. We ensure double blind review process where both the contributors as well as reviewers are remain anonymous. We have a standard review template along with a rating sheet to obtain objective assessment of the paper.

Indexing of the Journal
PRAJNAN is indexed and abstracted in EBSCO, ProQuest and also in Indian Citation Index (ICI).

Instructions to the Authors
We prefer electronic submission of all papers (by email). Where this is not absolutely possible, two hard copies may be sent to the Editor. All articles submitted for consideration should follow strict academic standards and it should be of interest to a broad audience of practitioners and academics. The preferred text format for papers is MS-Word. The length of the full Research Paper will be around 7000-8000 words. Type every portion of the manuscript double-spaced (a minimum of 6 mm between lines), including figure legends, table footnotes, and references, and number all pages in sequence, including the abstract, figure legends, and tables. The length of a brief article would be within 5000 words.

The first page (Title page) of the manuscript should contain only: (a) Title of the Paper, Brief Article, Note or Comment, (b) Name of the Author, (c) Name of the Institution to which the author is affiliated, (d) Brief academic bio-data and work experience of the author, and (e) complete mailing and e-mail address, and phone numbers. The second page (main text) should contain an executive summary or abstract of no more than 150 words, and 3-5 keywords (e.g., profitability, bank competitiveness and performance, etc.) and JEL classification code. The main text subject matter should commence from second page onwards for anonymity (so that the referee will not know the identity of the author).

Authors are fully responsible for the accuracy of the data used in the manuscripts. If the manuscripts contain statistical analysis, the authors should provide supplementary notes (which will not be published) on the methods used in the analysis for the convenience of the referees. Statistical tables should be clearly titled and numbered and the reader should be able to understand clearly the meaning of each row or column. Units of measurement and sources of data should be clearly stated.

The full mathematical workings necessary for justifying each step of the argument (which will not be published) should accompany the manuscripts of mathematical character to facilitate the referee's work. Diagrams should be clearly drawn (or generated) and labelled so that the reader would be able to understand its meaning.

Bibliographical references should be cited using the Harvard style Harvard Referencing Style for Citation of Work : When the reference is cited in the text and it is the beginning of a paragraph or also after a fullstop then it should be mentioned as follows : Moulton and Thomas (1993)

In-text references written within the main body of text should be as follows : (Mitchell, 2017)

For multiple citations (Andrews, 1989; Smith, 2000; Mitchell, 2017)

Citing Different Editions of the Same Work in One Parentheses: (Mitchell, 2010; 2017)[name (year)] and carefully checked for completeness, accuracy and consistency. The authors should carefully check and complete the reference citation in respect of:

For Journal Article: (a) Author's surname, initials as it appears on the cited works, (b) Year of publication, (c) "Title of the paper", (d) Name of the Journal, (e) Volume number, (f) (Issue number), and (g) Page references.

For Books: (a) Author's surname, initials as it appears on the cited works, (b) (Year of publication), (c) Title of the book, (d) Publisher, (e) Place of publication, and (f) Page references.

For Book Chapters: (a) Author's surname, initials as it appears on the cited works, (b) (Year of publication), (c) "Chapter Title", (d) Editor's surname, initials (Ed.), (e) Title of the book, (f) Publisher, (g) Place of publication, and (h) Page references.

For Working Papers: (a) Author's surname, initials as it appears on the cited works, (b) (Year of publication), (c) "Title of the paper”, (d) Working paper number, (e) Institution or Organization, (f) Place of Organization, and (g) Date.

For Electronic Sources: If an article is available online, the full URL should be supplied at the end of the reference along with the date when the resource was accessed.

It is important to note the papers listed in the bibliographical reference should also be discussed in the main text. The authors should cite publications in the text as follows: using the author's surname, e.g. Merton (1973); citing both names if there are two authors, e.g. (Black and Scholes, 1974), or (Altman, et al., 1980) when there are three or more authors. The reference list in alphabetical order should be supplied at the end of the paper.

Prajnan is listed in UGC CARE approved journals.
Prajnan is indexed and abstracted in EBSCO and ProQuest.
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Address for Communication for submission of article:

Editorial Team

Dr Arindam Bandyopadhyay

Editorial Team Members
Dr Dipali Krishnakumar

Dr Kedar nath Mukherjee

Production Team
Soni Philip (Chief Administrative Officer)
Shainaz Baig (Deputy Manager - Publications)
Yvette D’mello (Secretary)
Vincent D’mello Assistant Manager (Graphic Design)
Dhananjay Gondras Assistant Manager (Sales)

Copyright © 2021
National Institute of Bank Management, Pune, India
NIBM PO, Kondhwe Khurd
Pune - 411048 (India)
Tel: 020-26716311
Fax: 020-26834478
All rights reserved. No part of this journal may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage and retrieval system, without the permission of the publishers.
The views expressed and facts stated in the papers contained in this volume are of the individual authors and are in no way those of either the Editors, the institution to which they belong and the publisher.